Bioremediation is a combination of two words BIO - from biological, and REMEDIATION, which means to repair, cure.
Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms or their enzymes to return the disturbed environment to its original condition.
Bioremediation has the potential of complete degradation or transformation of hazardous organic pollutants into harmless products. The use of microorganisms in bioremediation is not limited to detoxification of organic compounds. Some microorganisms can reduce the cations of heavy metals into less toxic forms and harder soluble forms.
BIOREMEDIATION - Biological degradation and detoxification of soil, ground water, groundwater, waste water and air from hazardous substances, such as organic pollutants (oil and oil products, pesticides, detergents, polymers, phenols, organic solvents,...), fertilizers, heavy metals (e.g. mercury, cadmium, lead,...) and other toxic elements and compounds (arsenic, hydrogen cyanide,...), toxic gases (as hydrogen sulfide) and radionuclides, is the the most effective by using microorganisms!
Biological treatment in fact starts before begining of bioremediation (if treatment is performed ex situ), or if it outcomes on the site (in situ) at the start of the job, by the isolation of existing zymogenous community of active micro-organisms (consortia zymogens) that break down hydrocarbon contaminants during the process of bioremediation. So we work with already existing microorganisms from the contaminated site.